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Which that the 4 terrestrial planets has the the strongest magnetic field, Mars, Mercury, Venus, or Earth?
The Earth, by far.
The four giant planets have actually rather strong magnetic fields. Among the terrestrial planets, only the planet has a moderately solid magnetic field, yet weaker 보다 those that the giant planets. Mercury, prefer the Earth, has actually a self-sustained dipole magnetic field, but much weaker 보다 that the the Earth. The Moon, and also possibly Mars, appear to have actually had old planetary dynamos, yet not anymore. Finally, Venus also does not have a self-sustained dipole magnetic field.
One former explanation because that why the Moon and also Mars do not have self-sustained dipole magnetic fields has please by the wayside. It was lengthy posited that the cores that the Moon and also Mars have long due to the fact that frozen. This is not the case. Analyses that the gravity fields of the Moon and also Mars have displayed that those two objects have partially molten cores consists of iron and also other elements, just like the Earth.
It shows up that three vital ingredients are needed for a terrestrial planet to have a far-ranging magnetic field:A molten or partially molten main point consisting that iron, nickel, and also other elements. All four terrestrial planets and also the Moon happen this criterion.A sufficiently high rotation rate. What the sufficiently high is topic to debate. One rotation per sidereal day is obviously saturated high. Mars has a very comparable rotation rate yet does not have actually a self-sustained dynamo.A saturated high warmth flux across the core-mantle boundary. This is the one aspect that distinguishes the planet from the other 4 terrestrial objects. Mercury, the Moon, and Mars have actually static lid tectonics: their surfaces room frozen. Venus appears to have actually alternated in between static lid tectonics (which is what it has actually now) and also extreme volcano tectonics (the many efficient way to cool a planet).The planet is the only one of those 5 objects to have actually plate tectonics. While no as reliable as extreme volcanism v regard come cooling a planet, it reportedly is great enough to maintain the warmth flux throughout the core-mantle boundary the is essential to keep a self-sustaining dynamo.