The science of Seaweeds

By Ole Mouritsen

Marine macroalgae benefit people culturally, industrially, nutritionally, and also ecologically.

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Macroalgae are, loosely speaking, those that can be seen with the nude eye. Most of them room classified together benthic, i beg your pardon is come say that they fasten themselves to the seabed. Yet there is no need to be for this reason formal in talking around benthic macroalgae. We generally refer to them all the time by the single term seaweeds, and we manipulate them far an ext often than most human being realize.



Placing Hana-Tsunomata seaweed in champagne reasons the frond come rehydrate and also unfold if dancing ~ above the bubbles.

From Seaweeds: Edible, Available, and also Sustainable by Ole G. Mouritsen.


Macroalgae come in a good many varieties. Several of the bigger ones have facility structures through special tissues that administer support or move nutrients and also the products of photosynthesis; rather are made up of cells that are all practically identical. The smallest seaweeds are just a couple of millimeters or centimeters in size, if the biggest routinely thrive to a length of 30 come 50 meters. Seaweed cells additionally come in different sizes; in many varieties they have the right to measure one centimeter or more. These large cells have the right to contain numerous cell nuclei and organelles in order to ensure that the production of proteins is sufficient to sustain the duty of the cell and the rapid growth of the seaweed together a whole.

Macroalgae space classified right into three major groups: brown birds (Phaeophyceae), green algae (Chlorophyta), and red algae (Rhodophyta). As all of the groups contain chlorophyll granules, their characteristic colors are acquired from various other pigments. Many of the brown algae space referred to merely as kelp.

It is estimated that 1,800 various brown macroalgae, 6,200 red macroalgae, and 1,800 environment-friendly macroalgae are found in the marine environment. Back the red birds are more diverse, the brown ones space the largest. Also though we talk around the three teams of seaweeds together if lock were very closely related, this is true just to a boy extent. Because that example, brown algae and also red birds belong to two different biological kingdoms and are, in a sense, much less related come each other than, for example, a jellyfish is come a bony fish. Green algae and also red birds are more closely related to greater plants 보다 brown algae space and, together with diatoms, they evolved previously than brown algae.

Most species of seaweeds have actually soft tissues yet some are, to a higher or lesser degree, calcified, an example being calcareous red algae. The expansion of the calcium class is precisely managed by the polysaccharides that are existing on their cell walls.



Seaweeds, especially the brown algae, are generally comprised of 3 distinctly recognizable parts. In ~ the bottom there is a root-like structure, the holdfast, which, as the surname implies, secures the organism to that is habitat. It is typically joined through a stipe (or stem) come the leaf-like blades. The seaweed can have one or more blades, and the chisels can have various shapes. In part cases, the knives have a unique midrib. Photosynthesis takes place primarily in the blades and it is, therefore, vital that the stipe is long sufficient to place them sufficiently close to the surface of the water to reach the light. Some varieties have air-filled bladders, a acquainted sight ~ above bladder wrack, i beg your pardon ensure their access to irradiate by holding them upright in the water. This bladders have the right to be approximately 15 centimeters in diameter. Since brown algae room so lot like plants, they room often puzzled with them.

Not every seaweeds share these structures. Part smaller species have a organization that has actually a much less distinctive structure, consisting just of filaments that cells, which may or might not be branched. But practically all ranges have uncovered their place, one method or another, into the human being diet.

Originally, algae intended for human usage were gathered along the seashore or choose in the sea. Those the were eaten fresh were harvested locally and consumed in brief order. Together seaweeds have the right to be dried and, in that form, preserved for a lengthy time and transported easily, they to be recognized beforehand as a beneficial foodstuff and became a trade commodity. Over time, the demand for seaweeds, for a multiplicity of purposes, grew so an excellent that for many centuries they have actually been actively cultivated, especially in the much East.


The complex Life that a Sea Green


The life history of birds is complicated, and this is what yes, really differentiates them indigenous plants. In fact, macroalgae can pass with life stages so distinctive that, in the past, they have been mistaken for separate species. Seaweed reproduction can involve either specifically sexual or asexual phases, if some types display an alternation that generations that involves both in succession. In the former, the seaweed to produce gametes (egg and also sperm cells) v a single set of chromosomes and, in the latter, spores containing 2 sets that chromosomes. Some varieties can also reproduce asexually by fragmentation—that is, the blades shed small pieces that construct into fully independent organisms.



Some varieties solve the match-making trouble by equipping the reproductive cells with light-sensitive eyespots or v flagella so the they can swim. Others exploit chemical substances, well-known as pheromones or sex attractants. These space secreted and released through egg cells and also serve to lure the sperm. Some types (for example, the huge seaweed masses in the Sargasso Sea) secrete substantial quantities the slime, which ensures that the egg and also sperm cells stick nearby to every other and do not go astray.



The red alga Porphyra has an especially complex life cycle, with a fascinating facet that merits more discussion due to the fact that of the interesting background associated v its discovery. That relates directly to the farming of Porphyra because that the production of nori, i m sorry is especially widely supplied in Japanese cuisine—most familiarly, as for the wrapping for maki roll (See the recipe in the inscription for the nori roll image below.).

The chisels used in nori production grow while the seaweed is in the generation that reproduces sexually, return the organism itself deserve to actually develop asexually indigenous spores. The blades produce egg cells and also sperm cells. The egg cells continue to be on the blades, whereby they are fertilized by the sperm cells. The fertilized eggs have the right to then kind a new form of spores, which are released. This spores germinate right into a calcium-boring filament stage that can grow in the shells the dead bivalves, such together oysters and also clams, in the process developing point out that provide the biology a pinkish sheen.

Until the 1940s the was believed that this sex-related stage was in reality an entirely separate types of alga, given the name Conchocelis rosea. There is no an expertise of the true life cycle, it to be not possible to thrive Porphyra successfully in aquaculture. Nobody knew where the spores for the totally grown Porphyra originated. This to be the key reason because that the recurring troubles experienced through the Japanese seaweed fishers in their attempts to maintain Porphyra in a predictable manner.


The Natural background Museum is located in south Kensington, a fashionable area of London, simply a quick walk from Harrods room store. One ideologies the building, i m sorry is collection above street level and also is accessed by one imposing staircase resulting in the significant entrance doors, through a feeling of humility. A dried sample that winged kelp (Alaria esculenta) is housed in London’s Natural background Museum. The kelp is now sold as a health and wellness food, occasionally under the name Atlantic wakame.Somewhat naively, I had actually gone to view what the museum had actually by means of seaweed specimens in its factory collections. It quickly turned out, to my great disappointment, that there to be none top top display.Back in mine room in ~ the Royal society with a check out of St. James Park and large Ben, wherein I to be lucky enough to it is in lodged because that a couple of days, I immediately started calling around at the museum and also managed to obtain the birds curator herself, Jenny Bryant, ~ above the phone.When Jenny met me in the front hall of the Natural history Museum, she take it me up to the height story and through an undistinguished door through a sign over it that reads Cryptogamic Herbarium. top top the various other side that the locked door is a treasure trove to which the basic public has actually no access. This is an substantial room through cabinet after cabinet whereby the algal collection are neatly ordered behind beautiful brown wood doors that safeguard the breakable specimens native exposure to light. Ns was presented examples that the collections’ share of green, red, and brown macroalgae. There are around 600,000 seaweed specimens in all, v the earliest dating indigenous the 1700s. To my good surprise and delight, the first folio that Jenny pulled out was native the personal collection of Kathleen mar Drew-Baker, the renowned researcher who unlocked the keys of the Porphyra life cycle, paving the means for the contemporary Japanese nori industry. Right here I can see with my own eyes Drew-Baker’s carefully placed Porphyra umbilicalis and read annotations, in her own handwriting, around classification and where the specimen to be found. Then i was permitted to sit amongst the collections and make usage of the library. Sitting next to the old shelves and also cupboards, ns soaked up the congenial environment of this place, whereby time seemed to was standing still and also the staff went quietly around their tasks.When ns was leaving, Jenny called me the it had actually been a great day for algae, as one of their previous colleagues had dropped by. I had the impression that seaweed study is a low priority in ~ the Natural background Museum and that only a couple of phycologists job-related on the collections. Ns exited through the small side door and found myself back on the huge main staircase. Come think the one can pass by the modest entrance and have no idea around what lies behind it. “Seaweed people” are friendly and they are possessed the a peculiar, quiet enthusiasm for that distinct alga to which lot of their functioning life is devoted. And also they love to share their enthusiasm for it v others who are interested in the subject. Ns left the museum in a an excellent mood, through my own seaweed obsession recharged.


It to be an English alga researcher, Dr. Kathleen mar Drew-Baker, who discovered the an enig of the sexual segment the the Porphyra life cycle. Drew-Baker to be unaware of the obstacles of the seaweed fishers. Instead, she was preoccupied through shedding irradiate on the secret of why the species of laver (Porphyra umbilicalis) that grew approximately the coastline of England seemed to disappear during the summer, reappearing again only toward the finish of autumn. She tried without success to germinate spores that she had actually collected.

Finally, after nine years’ precious of effort to flourish the alga in light- and also temperature-controlled tanks, she discovered that the spores would germinate if they were allowed to work out on a sterilized oyster shell. They would even grow on one eggshell. A few months later, the resulting small, roseate sprouts created their very own spores that, in turn, can germinate and also develop into the well-known big purple laver.

Drew-Baker released her results in 1949. Soon thereafter the Japanese phycologist Sokichi Segawa repeated her experiments using regional varieties of Porphyra and found that they behaved in the same method as the English species. The mystery was solved and also the results were conveniently put to usage in Japan. Drew-Baker died at a fairly young period in 1957, reportedly unaware that her curiosity and seminal research had actually laid the structures for the advance of the most an important aquaculture industry in the world.


Lighting the ocean Garden


As in eco-friendly plants, photosynthesis allows seaweeds to convert sunlight into chemical energy, i beg your pardon is climate bound by the formation of the sugar glucose. Glucose is the structure block because that the seaweeds’ carbohydrate and, at the same time, one energy resource for the production of other organic substances that the seaweeds need in order to grow and also to bring out life processes. The photosynthetic process uses up carbon dioxide, i beg your pardon is thereby eliminated from the water. In addition, phosphorous, a selection of minerals, and also especially nitrogen space required. Oxygen is formed as a by-product, dissolved in the water, and also then released right into the atmosphere. This by-product is of fundamental importance for those organisms the must, prefer humans, have oxygen to be able to breathe. Photosynthesis have the right to even, to a particular extent, be brought out as soon as seaweeds are exposed to air and partially dehydrated.


Sea vegetables Harvest in MaineIn 1971 Shep Erhart and his mam Linette started to harvest seaweeds in ~ Frenchman’s only in Maine, where they had resolved after giving up the idea of ending up being farmers. They now run Maine coastline Sea Vegetables, a company which has actually its very own building and 20 employees who transform the locally harvested seaweeds into more than 20 various products.The raw product for this organization is ceded by about 60 seaweedharvesters who occupational along the shores of Maine and also Nova Scotia, wherein algae are found in abundance. Shep trains the harvesters himself. That is of utmost prestige to him the they know the principles of collecting the different species of naval algae sustainably so the they perform the least damage to the environment.Maine shore Sea vegetables processes around 50 loads of dried algae annually, the which about 60 percent is the dulse because that which the agency is particularly famous. Eating dulse is an old legacy in Maine, lugged to that shores by inhabitants from Wales, Ireland, and also Scotland. I have become a an excellent fan of your applewood smoked dulse; i eat it as if it were candy.When dried dulse is lugged to the factory, the is sorted through hand, and also epiphytes, tiny crustaceans, and also bivalves space picked off. The bone-dry dulse is put in a sealed room to reabsorb part moisture and also then left to ripen for a pair of weeks. Throughout ripening, the seaweeds’ enzyme tenderize the knives so that they end up being softer and more flavorful. In strictly sealed packages, the chewy knives have a shelf life of about a year.

From Seaweeds: Edible, Available, and Sustainable through Ole G. Mouritsen.


During the night, as soon as the light level is low, photosynthesis stops and also the seaweeds start to take it in oxygen, burn glucose, and give turn off carbon dioxide. Under common conditions, photosynthesis is the leading process, allowing the seagrass to build up their carbohydrate content. To the extent that castle have access to light in the water, algae actually use sunlight much more efficiently than terrestrial plants.


Marine algae space a much far better source of steel than foods such together spinach and also egg yolks.


The red macroalgae normally prosper at the best depths, commonly as much as 30 meters down, the environment-friendly macroalgae flourish in shallow water, and the brown algae in between. This distribution of types according to the depth of the water is somewhat imprecise, however; a given types can be discovered at a ar where there are optimal conditions with respect to substrate, nutritional elements, temperature, and light.

In exceptionally clear water, one can discover seaweeds cultivation as much as 250 meters below the surface ar of the sea. The is claimed that the document is hosted by a calcareous red alga the was uncovered at a depth of 268 meters, where just 0.0005 percent that the sunlight penetrates. Also though the waters at the depth may show up pitch-dark to human eyes, there is still enough light to permit the alga come photosynthesize. In turbid waters, seaweeds prosper only in the top, well-lit layers of water, if at all.

Formerly the was thought that seaweed types had adjusted to your habitat by having pigments the were sensitive to the different wavelengths the the irradiate spectrum. In this way they can take benefit of precisely that component of the spectrum that penetrated come the depth at which castle lived. Because that example, the blue and violet wavelengths reach higher depths. The red algae that live in these waters need to contain pigments that absorb blue and violet light and, together a consequence, show up to have actually the complementary color red. Experiment have due to the fact that shown the this otherwise elegant connection does not constantly hold true. Seaweed species that live at the ocean’s surface may also contain colours that protect them native the sun’s ultraviolet light.

Given the all the substances the seaweeds require in bespeak to endure are dissolved in the water, macroalgae, uneven plants, have actually no need of roots, stems, or genuine leaves. Nutrients and gases are exchanged directly across the surface ar of the seaweed through diffusion and active transport. In some types there is no meaningful differentiation, and each cell draws its supply of nutrients from the surrounding water. Top top the various other hand, committed cell varieties and tissues that help in the circulation of nutrition within the organism have the right to be uncovered in a variety of brown macroalgae.

Access come nitrogen is an essential limiting element in seaweed growth, specifically for green algae. The boosting runoff right into the seas of fertilizer-related nitrogen indigenous fields and also streams has developed favorable problems for the development of algae, especially during the summer as soon as it is warm and the days space long.


Omelette (tamago-yaki) with Nori1 paper of nori seaweed3 eggsmirin (sweet rice wine)salt and sugar1. cracked the eggs into a bowl. Include a tiny salt, sugar, and also mirin (optional) and whisk whatever together lightly with a fork.2. warm a pan that has been greased with a tiny amount the fat, preferably one that has actually virtually no smell of that own.3. pour the egg mixture right into the pan a little at a time over short heat.4. location the nori paper on the wooden surface and, using chopsticks or a wooden spatula, fold the set egg mixture with each other on itself several times to develop a flat, layered omelette (tamago).5. eliminate the omelette indigenous the pan and also press itinto shape with a bamboo roll mat, which will imprint a nice surface texture top top it.

From Seaweeds: Edible, Available, and Sustainable through Ole G. Mouritsen.


Different types of seaweeds avail themselves of a range of techniques in order to grow. In sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca), the cells all undergo division more or less randomly throughout the organism. Other species, among them several varieties of brown algae, have actually a expansion zone in ~ the finish of the stipe and also at the bottom of the blade; this is whereby an existing blade grows and new blades are formed. The oldest blades are outermost, eventually wearing down and falling off together the seaweed ages. As a result, the stipe can be numerous years old, if the blades are annuals. This expansion mechanism permits the seaweed to safeguard itself from ending up being overgrown by smaller algae, dubbed epiphytes, which close on to it.

On particular seaweed species, the epiphytes are found overwhelmingly top top the stipes, i beg your pardon can come to be covered with them, while the knives retain a smooth surface as lengthy as they are young and also still growing. Finally, some types of seaweeds, such together bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) and the majority of the red algae, flourish at the extremities of the blades.

The in its entirety effect of seaweeds on the global ecosystem is enormous. The is estimated that all algae, including the phytoplankton, are jointly responsible for developing 90 percent of the oxygen in the atmosphere and up come 80 percent that the organic issue on Earth. We deserve to compare your output through that of tree by looking at the lot of necessary carbon produced per square meter top top an yearly basis. Macroalgae can produce in between 2 and also 14 kilograms, vice versa, terrestrial plants, such together trees and grasses in pleasant climates, and microalgae can generate only around 1 kilogram. The substantial productive capacity of macroalgae deserve to possibly be ideal illustrated through the fact that the largest brown birds can flourish up to fifty percent a meter a day. That quantities to a couple of centimeters an hour!


Seaweeds are comprised of a special combination of substances, i beg your pardon are really different indigenous the ones frequently found in terrestrial plants and also which enable them to play a distinctive duty in human nutrition. Many notably, the mineral contents of seaweeds is 10 time as great as that discovered in tree grown in soil; as a consequence, civilization who regularly eat seaweeds rarely suffer indigenous mineral deficiencies. In addition, maritime algae are endowed v a wide selection of trace elements and vitamins. Due to the fact that they save on computer a big volume of soluble and also insoluble dietary fiber, which space either slightly, or rather completely, indigestible, seaweeds likewise have a low calorie count.


Marine birds possess a wonderful ability to take up and concentrate certain substances from seawater. Because that example, the iodine concentration in konbu and other species of kelp is approximately 100,000 time as an excellent in the cell of the seaweeds together in the neighboring water, and the potassium concentration is 20–30 time greater. Top top the other hand, the sodium content is appreciably lower than that of salt water. Depending upon the species, new seaweeds are 70–90 percent water through weight. The composition of the dry ingredients in the different varieties of seaweeds can vary a an excellent deal, however the approximate proportions are about 45–75 percent carbohydrates and fiber, 7–35 percent proteins, less than 5 percent fats, and also a large number of various minerals and also vitamins.

Broadly speaking, the protein in algae contain every the vital amino acids, especially the crucial ones that cannot it is in synthesized by our bodies and that we because of this have come ingest in our food. Porphyra has actually the best protein contents (35 percent) and members of the bespeak Laminariales the lowest (7 percent).

Three teams of carbohydrates are found in seaweeds: sugars, soluble dietary fiber, and also insoluble diet fiber. Countless of these carbohydrates are different from those that make up terrestrial plants and, furthermore, lock vary among the red, the green, and the brown types of algae. The sugars, in which we encompass sugar alcohols such together mannitol in brown algae and also sorbitol in red algae, have the right to constitute as much as 20 percent of the seaweeds. The seaweed cells exploit several species of starch-like carbohydrates for internal power storage; again, these vary according come species. For example, the brown birds contain laminarin, i beg your pardon is of commercial importance as it can be fermented to do alcohol.


Soluble diet fiber, i beg your pardon is positioned in in between the seaweed cells and also binds castle together, constitutes as much as 50 percent of the organism. Composed of three unique groups of carbohydrates, namely, agar, carrageenan, and alginate, fiber can absorb water in the human stomach and also intestines and kind gelatinous building material that assist in the digestive process. Insoluble diet fiber acquired from the stiff cell wall surfaces of the seaweeds is present in lesser quantities, frequently amounting to in between 2 percent and also 8 percent that the dry weight. Cellulose is discovered in all three species of algae and xylan (another kind of complex carbohydrate) in the red and also green ones.

The main mineral materials in seaweeds room iodine, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, and chlorine. Included to these are many important trace facets such together zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, molybdenum, and also chromium. The mineral composition, especially, varies substantially from one seaweed varieties to another. Konbu contains much more than 100–1,000 time as much iodine together nori. On average, dulse—a widely consumed red seaweed—is the poorest selection in terms of mineral and vitamin contents but, on the other hand, the is far richer in potassium salts than in sodium salts. In general, naval algae room a much much better source of stole than foods items such as spinach and egg yolks. An abundance of vitamins is current in seaweeds, namely, vitamins A, B (B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, and folate), C, and also E, yet no vitamin D. (For a nutritious crispbread recipe, click on the "+" authorize in the photo below.)

Seaweeds contain iodine, back the exact quantities again vary substantially by species. The iodine contents is dependent on wherein the seaweed grew and also how it has actually been tackled after harvest. Furthermore, the iodine is not evenly distributed, being many abundant in the farming parts and also least abundant in the blades. In particular, the brown seaweeds contain huge amounts of iodine. That is not recognized for particular why brown seaweeds save on computer so lot iodine, but this is probably attached to their volume for fast growth. Recent studies the the brown seaweed species oarweed (Laminaria digitata) found high concentration of inorganic iodine in the form of iodide (I¯) in the cabinet walls. Iodide was found to act as the key antioxidant for this tissue. In addition, the study confirmed that the activity of iodide was not accompanied by an buildup of organically tied iodine.

The background of the discovery of iodine as an element actually starts with seaweeds. Bernard Courtois (1777–1838), a French chemist, was working in his activities in 1811, extracting saltpeter from seaweeds because that the production of gunpowder for Napoleon’s army. He noticed the his chemistry experiments with the seaweed ash provided rise come a violet-colored vapor that condensed together crystals on his copper ship and, unfortunately, brought about them to corrode. Courtois convinced an initial his French, and also later his English, fellow chemists the his exploration had essential dimensions. Their job-related then rapidly led to the identification of the substance the was the resource of the vapors. The turned out to be a formerly unknown element and, as the color violet is referred to as iodes in Greek, the new element was given the name iodine.

Terrestrial plants space a poor resource of iodine, i beg your pardon can result in iodine deficiency in vegetarians and also vegans. The accidental exploration of iodine in seaweeds is a wonderful example of just how research and an open up mind on the part of the researcher deserve to lead to results that have actually a significant significance for the economy and for person health.


Julie"s Crispbread with Seaweeds1/2 cup rolled oats1/2 cup flaxseed7 tbsp. Sunflower seeds7 tbsp. Pumpkin seeds2 tsp. Salt1 cup flour1 tsp. Baking powder4 tbsp. Blended seaweed granules (sea lettuce, dulse, bullwhip kelp, gigantic kelp, mekabu)3/4 cup water2 tbsp. Grapeseed oil1. In a bowl mix with each other the oats, seeds, seaweeds, salt, and also baking powder.2. add water and also mix well until the dough i do not care sticky.3. division the dough into two and place one component on a item of baking paper.4. On optimal of the dough add another piece ofbaking file and role the dough out as thinly as feasible between the two.5. through a knife or pizza wheel cut the height bakingpaper and also divide the dough into squares there is no cutting through the bottom paper.6. eliminate the top baking record and location the dough and the bottom record on a baking sheet.7. Repeat the procedure v the other component of the dough.8. bake the crispbread at 400° F for about 15–20 minute until golden brown.9. ~ cooling a couple of minutes, the crispbreadcan be broken along the scored lines.

From Seaweeds: Edible, Available, and Sustainable by Ole G. Mouritsen.


One the the cook culprits is a chemistry substance, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), i beg your pardon is found in red and green algae, whereby it helps control the osmotic balance that the cell in relation to the surrounding salt water. Some researchers think that DMSP is critical antioxidant, which gives support because that the physiological features of the algae. DMSP accumulates in those pets in the food chain that feed on seaweeds.

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DMSP has no taste and also no smell, but dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a volatile gas the is a by-product of DMSP breakdown, has actually a characteristics disagreeable odor. That is developed when DMSP is oxidized in the environment or as soon as it is degraded by bacterial action. The can also be released in the course of food preparation once fresh fish and also shellfish room heated. When current in small quantities, DMS is the cause of what we often speak to “the odor of the sea,” yet in huge quantities it results in the disagreeable aroma that is associated with rotten seaweeds and with fish the is no much longer fresh.

DMS is the most abundant gas sulfur link emitted right into the Earth’s environment as a result of biological processes. When DMS is released right into the atmosphere, it, in turn, is oxidized to type particulate aerosol substances. These can cause condensation that water vapor, i beg your pardon brings about cloud formation and also thereby affect the weather. Therefore although we may uncover its odor offensive, countless scientists think the the DMS produced from the decomposition of marine algae, especially phytoplankton, theatre a crucial role in the regulation that the earth climate.

When brown algae and some species of red algae decay, lock can cause the development of one more sulfurous gas, methyl mercaptan. This is the gas that smells like rotten cabbage and also is often added to natural gas in order to alert united state to that is presence. Conversely, new seaweeds, lot like a delightfully aromatic ocean breeze, have a characteristic, agreeable smell. In both instances this is because of substances called bromophenols, i beg your pardon the algae synthesize. They room released into the air and also accumulate in ocean-dwelling fish and shellfish through their food intake.

Because there are no bromophenols in fresh water, fish that live in lakes and streams absence the exact same pleasant odor and taste as their saltwater cousins. That is yet one more way that seaweeds contribute agreeably and also meaningfully to the human being diet.