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 Georg Gangl is a doctdental student at the Centre for the Theoretical Studies of History. His dissertation project bears the title “Narration and also Colligation. On historiographical settings of ordering the past”.


georg.gangl <ät> carolannpeacock.com


When I was around 6 years old, I fell in love via history1. Tright here were momentous events following all about me at that time however they did not spawn my interemainder in history. I have actually no memory to sheight of around the implosion of the Soviet Union and the finish of the Eastern Bloc or the Yugoslav Wars that were raging only 50 kilometers south of my Austrian residence. What did stick in my memory and also sustained my creativity ago in 1991 and for years to come was rather an educational children’s cartoon series around the history of humankind, which was then broadcast on Austrian public TV, Once Upon a Time… Man. The series is a production by Albert Barillé from 1978 for French public broadcast, originally titled Il était une fois… l"Homme. (The Gerguy variation that I watched as a child bears the title Es war einmal … der Mensch. Similar to the English version, it is a literal translation of the original French title).2

Rewatching the series currently practically 30 years later and even more than 40 years after its initial appearance, a set of questions that were of no worry to me as a child crossed my mind. Once Upon a Time… Man is an educational cartoon series around human background for youngsters. That means it need to existing the expertise about the past it provides, its primary educational contents, in a form proper to this tarobtain audience, which arguably has actually rather various demands and interests from an adult audience interested in background, not to soptimal of expert historians. The tool of film itself and also the actual develop liked as an animated cartoon series arguably also force some selections on the presentation of that content.

In short, what interested me this time about watching the series with my philosopher’s hat on was exactly how the epistemic good of informing truths around the huguy past was packaged, yielded, and also maybe retracted or even distorted in the procedure of producing a product that is both attrenergetic and also educative for children. In Once Upon a Time… Man epistemic, pedagogical, and entertainment ambitions all come together in the finished product, and it is not clear from the outcollection how they relate and impinge upon each other or that the epistemic objectives necessarily come out on height (or also should).

The goal of offering specific historical expertise need to be uncontroversial to anyone who has actually had actually a look at the series, simply as tbelow are obviously other (valuable) goals at play also. One such evident non-epistemic goal is offering entertainment for youngsters if possibly just as a precondition or means for the actual acquisition of knowledge. Another is orientation and perspective in matters that are understood crucial for the development of children, such as questions of ethical behaviour and also political perspective. The way history is presented in a children’s series is in this feeling incredibly different from the discourse of disciplinary historiography with its certain experienced standards where pedagogical and also entertainment considerations normally play a minor function at finest. Tright here are overlaps, though, through develops of public history as it is presented in museums and also through assorted creates of “histotainment” as commonly viewed on TV. These frequently sign up with the goal of imparting expertise together various other pedagogical goals and offering entertainment, simply as Once Upon a Time… Man does. (Museums often have actually actual research study and storage functions too.)

Forms of SelectivityOnce Upon a Time… Man is composed of 26 episodes that span the whole background because Earth’s production even more than 4 billion years earlier up until the corresponding current of the production of the series (1978) and past. The last episode goes well beyond background as they and also we recognize it and talks about the potentially bleak future prospects of mankind, as they existing themselves from the vantage point of 1978. While the series’ scope is huge and the basic outlook evolutionary, talking about the early on eons of Earth’s background, the age of the dinosaurs, other hominids (Neanderthals), and also our species development takes up the initially two episodes just, via the continuing to be 24 of them covering human background, or a particular segment of human background at that.3 

The segment of history of interest for the series is the advancement of world, as conceived in the typical historiographies of the West. The narrative as such is not strictly Eurocentric as far as the start of civilization is concerned, as it is usual for narratives to begin external of Europe where for a long time none of the usual hallmarks of human being appeared. It is nevertheless a narrative of the West bereason after starts in the Middle East human being shifts to Europe wright here it continues to be, much later just to be expanded to Northern America. This is likewise the narrative that I learned in the exact same outline in the time of my institution days, through amends made for the background of the Habsburg Monarchy, which plays no role in the series.

Civilization begins in this story with sedentism, the domestication of beastern and also plant (episode 3), and also the innovation of creating in bigger Mesopotamia and Egypt (episode 4). It waxes and wanes in its first few millennia (episode 5) just to concerned bloom in Old Greece and Rome wbelow it got to a very first apex (episodes 6, 7). Then comes the Migration Period, which leads to the devastation of the Western Romale Realm and ushers in the early on medieval duration leading up to the Carolingians and Charlemagne (episodes 8, 9). A brief time later, the Vimonarchs enter the scene via their pillaging of the rest of Europe (episode 10), and people is on the uptick again with the beginning of renewed urbanization after the rotate of the initially millennium (episode 13). Get in Quattrocento Italy and also then the Renaissance—no story without Leonarcarry out and also his exploits—from wright here on history diversifies and deserves to be told in more information and also parallel fashion (episode 14); recounting the maritime adendeavors of the Spanish conquista of the Americas (episode 15), the story of Elizabethan Era England via Her Majesty’s privateers (episode 16), and also the burgeoning of the Dutch United Provinces (episode 17). On to the 17th century, where social worries are coming to be even more and even more pressing. Now we uncover ourselves in the agency of Louis XIV., the Sun King , and also his tremendous wide range that were squeezed out of France by taxes (episode 18), witness the times of Knowledge after his passing (episodes 19, 20), through honorary point out of the Russia of Peter the Great, a modernizer in his own right, and march on to the American Revolutionary War and the French Radvancement at the finish of that century (episodes 21, 22). Thereafter the emphasis expands even even more and social and also technical advances such as the Industrial Rdevelopment take centre stage rather of kings and conquests (episode 23). We are introduced to the mechanical and also electrical wonders of the second half of the 1ninth and the beginning of the 20th century, to self-moved locomotion and powered aircraft in the form of trains, cars, and also planes, and the turmoils they produce, not the leastern of them the making of impoverimelted working classes throughout the commercial centres of Europe (episodes 24, 25).

This is the technical and commercial world that is critically scrutinized in the very last episode of the series (episode 26). In it, background is left behind and the social anxieties of the 1970s end up being the centre of attention: environmental contamination and the inhospitality of the modern-day metropolises, consumerism, overpopulace, and the depletion of the planet’s resources. The episode even paints the dark scenario of the earth being destroyed by humankind, with the Star Trek-choose sci-fi coda that we, having conquer strife and also departments, will certainly live blisscompletely in external room by the year 2150, waiting for Earth to be habitable again after the nuclear overkill. This more sombre tale of civilization or at leastern its finish, spurred as it was by the real danger of what was called the “nuclear holocaust” throughout the Cold War, is even baked right into the framing of the totality series. Its intro that replays humale advancement and also cultural development in fast forward ends via the scene of people scrambling for a rocket that takes off just prior to the planet explodes. Not everyone makes it onto the rocket. This tragic scene made a large impression on me as a child and the picture of the exploding Earth stuck with me ever before considering that, in stark comparison to the otherwise upbeat and also optimistic tone of the entirety series.4 

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Planet exploding as checked out in the finish of the intro to eincredibly episode.

The narrative presented is of the genre “The West and the rest”, with a quite specific political perspective owed to the 1970s and also specific emphases and lacunae to it. An apparent issue in eexceptionally such a narrative is the depiction of non-European peoples and also cultures, or the absence thereof. It is not the case that all those peoples are omitted from the series. Some are presented when interacting through Western powers and people that are considered considerable by the series. In this setup, the fate of Byzantium and Spain introduces us to Mohammed and also the Islamic caliphates (episode 8); the 13th century journeys of Marco Polo make us visit the China of Kublai Khan (episode 12); Cortez’s project brings us to the Aztec world at the brink of its devastation by the Spaniards (episode 15); and also the voyperiods of the Mayfreduced give us insights into the resides of the Native Americans of Northern America (episode 21). Tright here is no actual discussion, even in this restricted establishing, of Africa, India, Australia or Oceania throughout the series. (Some, yet not all, of these continents are pointed out in a passing sentence or 2 sometimes, though).

The depiction itself of those individuals and societies is not mean-spirited or overtly nasty, though. While they attract on typical visual depictions of Non-Europeans taken from public and also colonial discourse–some of them insensitive and even racist, specifically as soon as it pertains to the representation of black Africans and Native Americans–they are still depicted as helpful part of humanity through no denigration of their social specificity. Cultural and other achievements of those peoples are discussed as well.

Tbelow are also particular emphases and lacunae once it concerns the primary focus of the series, the background of the (western) human being, that seem mostly pedagogically motivated: Conflicts of massive intensity and enduring are visually softened when shown at all and also given little room as compared to various other concerns, especially the closer we pertained to the existing. Colonialism is stated in a few sentences here and also there; the 2 World Wars of the last century receive short descriptions in the direction of the finish of two episodes through not much detail or any genuine portrayal of the horrors and also cruelty. The Hiroshima bomb is discussed in line via the emphasis on the possibility of a “nuclear holocaust”, the Shoah is not. Instead, the technical accomplishments of those times are highlighted and also provided the majority of screen time. More than half of the episode that consists of the brief account of the 2nd World War (episode 25) encounters the history of aviation in the 20th century, and the episode that contains the First World War (episode 24) treats us greatly to a history of the locomotive and also vehicle. Blood and injuries, as noticeable marks of experiencing, are also missing from disputes as far as they are shown.

Tbelow is additionally at least one case wright here tright here seems to be not only selectivity at work-related however wright here there are would certainly be excellent epistemic reasons not to encompass a certain story, which is offered as if it were a fact: In episode 4, tales of the Old Testament such as the Crossing of the Red Sea and The Judgment of Solomon are told as actual historical happenings, which is something of an oddity in comparichild with the remainder of the series wbelow biblical stories are not taken up anymore in any kind of information at all. Without any kind of further religious intent visible, it need to remain somepoint of an enigma why these Scriptures tales were specifically included in the as a whole account (via The Judgment of Solomon having moral top quality I expect yet not the Crossing of the Red Sea).

By itself, selectivity of an account does not speak versus its epistemic goodness, rather the contrary. We cannot tell the history of everything, also if we were in a place to recognize it, and Once Upon a Time… Man does a good job of presenting expertise about the choose part of human background it decided to tell, background from its earliest times to this day, through many kind of of the main stperiods of the advance of western civilization being spanned. Tright here could even be some included worth to precisely this selection of historic episodes for the intended taracquire audience are youngsters in the core countries of the West whose very own background in a feeling is being told in the series.The story is still that of the West, at the expense of the rest. This makes the depiction of non-European individuals secondary and also in some respects racist, as explained over, if mainly not viciously so. Assessing the all at once epistemic goodness of the account, these two opposing facets need to be weighed versus each various other. In my book, the assessment remains as a whole a positive one with the epistemic excellent of providing kids a true account of (their own) previous far outweighing the damage done by the racist depiction of “othered” individuals. Kids have the right to learn a lot of exciting historical stuff with the series, through its racist aspects being incidental to the breakthrough of the story. Especially as various other societies and individuals are generally defined and also portrayed respectfully through the trouble largely being the caricatures of their physical appearance, which in principle can conveniently be corrected for, and also not the emphasis on the West in and also of itself.

On an additional level, the selectivity seems to have pedagogical roots, as we have seen. It is primarily believed that youngsters must not be exposed to violence and (excessive) suffering. This defines why the World Wars and various other violent episodes of history are just mentioned in passing and also tbelow is basically no showing of blood or major injury in the series. It is my hunch that the focus that is rather put on technology—from Leonarcarry out to trains, cars, and airplanes—deserve to be described by the intended primary audience of the series: young boys. Aget, while such a emphasis is not without its own issues as it reproduces sex stereoforms, just as the series itself is not without its share of such stereoforms, this selection delivers knowledge on social background and especially the history of technology to a young audience. This pedagogically thrust lopsidedness of the account deserve to be and is routinely amfinished in later educational settings, such as middle and high schools, wright here battles and also various other atrocities are taught as part of history curricula.

Lastly, tbelow are the odd Old Testimony stories discussed and also the future scenario of the damage of Earth that have no prompt epistemic mooring and also cannot be defended on such grounds. It is my impression that they were had for pedagogical factors, particularly to imcomponent certain ethical and political values reputed central for the character breakthrough of youngsters. The explosion of the civilization and “nuclear holocaust” scenarios seem to be intfinished for sensitizing the young audience to the difficulties of their own times as watched from the perspective of the late 1970s. While coloured by specific conmessage of that time, many of the problems increased are still through us today, and some such as eco-friendly deterioration have actually also risen to political prestige and urgency again. These reflections, in any type of case, take up an extremely small component of the series and, while having no epistemic basis on their own, do not interfere negatively through the historic knowledge that is being conferred in the series. In any type of feeling, some of these values such as temperateness, open up and honest discussion and perseverance have the right to be seen as metacognitive worths and abilities that underpin to a particular extent any open-ended truth-seeking discourse main to both scientific research and culture (on the worths organized by the self-control of historiography, see Tucker 2004).

We have actually viewed in this area just how the specific selection of the past that is thought about worth informing by the series is mediated by pedagogical concerns about what is amazing and also proper to tell kids. Tright here is additionally a general political and also honest impulse underlying the entirety series, which affects at least the general framing of the story told. In this frame, many expertise about the previous is gave to kids through the series, one episode at a time. Now we have the right to to turn to how this content is actually put onto the display screen. Next to the objectives of the series discussed so far, its entertaining character will become especially palpable.

Mise en ScèneWith movies, and cartoons at that, being visual media tbelow are particular scenic decisions that have to be taken, somepoint called mise en scène in film concept. Even if the precise number of civilization storming the Winter Palace or the Bastille are not recognized, in a film you should put a definite amount of people in the scene. Depicting those events5 The mise en scène of Once Upon a Time… Man complies with ethics especially geared to its educational purposes and its young audience. The stories revolve around a major cast of six numbers that recur in eextremely episode in various formats and garments fitted to the times and also societies they are showing. At the centre of the unfolding of background is Maestro, a bearded wise and old male who represents development and also generally depicts a philosopher, inventor, expert or counselor of sorts yet not someone taking any decisions of historic import. He is not instantly in power but comments on it and also sees points going awry over and over aacquire, despite his consistent admonitions to the contrary. Almeans cshed to him, you have 2 ordinary guys, Adam and also Jumbo in the Germale variation, who are hocolony and execute their best to make execute under the situations they are dealt by history. Adam is the thoughtful one and Jumbo the muscle who is neverthemuch less excellent and honest. On the side of Adam stands Eva who is a caring mommy yet likewise a solid womale. At some point there are Klotz and das Ekel, their names meaning somepoint choose uncouth fool and also stinker in Germale, that are haughty and also vain and also always putting their very own immediate interests ahead of everything else. In trying to attain their selfish goals, they are out to thwart the sincere life plans of the various other characters.6

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The primary actors of six personalities throughout different historic durations (from left to right): Jumbo, Eva, Adam, Maestro, Klotz, das Ekel. In front of the former three also stand also their boy versions.

Episodes are built in the develop of giving basic information around the moment and also subject of the episode prior to the actual mise en scène takes area, wright here our 6 primary personalities show up and play out a scenario indicated by the informational contents. In a solitary episode, tright here can be numerous informational segments followed by vignettes through the characters exemplifying the contents. Often, real historic numbers show up and are part of the story. Mostly the stories played out are fictional though, also if they contain historical figures.

Epistemically, these settings, also once they contain real historical numbers, cannot be said to be true, as opposed to the informational segments. They could be called “true enough” in a more calm manner of speaking, though. The informational bits provide us at leastern the kind of points that happened and also the kind of world connected, yet occasionally also the actual historic actors, and also just how points about happened within the bounds collection by the indevelopment provided. Episodes then put them in scene in the setting of largely our 6 primary personalities. Such a setup of historic exemplification can also frequently be checked out in many kind of historic documentaries, minus the particular comical aspect and also the general upbeat tone, which regularly likewise put more basic indevelopment about what taken place into concrete scenes to be competent by the audience.7 

The mise en scène consists of a recurring comical aspect obviously catered to the taracquire audience of kids. The conflict in between the good and also mischievous personalities is typically fixed physically with Jumbo beating Klotz and also Ekel up through a swift blow to the head, regularly bring about them having visible bumps flourishing out of their heads. This is the just violence that is frequently portrayed in the series and it is obviously softened and cushioned up violence, neither Klotz nor Ekel are ever before seriously injured. The purpose of those scenes is flatly entertainment and also comic relief for children via no immediate epistemic get. (Secondarily, such comical scenes might very well be epistemically valuable, as it could be that they store the youngsters concentrated and also interested in the series and the expertise it provides.). As a form of humor every one of this is extremely basic (bump follows hit on the head), immediate and visual and also it is just one of a few areas wbelow the series fell flat for me rewatching it as an adult.

The establishing as such via its familiar stock characters through addressed traits and also routinely recurring behaviours additionally offers immediate acknowledgment worth and orientation to the youngsters audience. It breaks complex breakthroughs dvery own into the mentioned vignettes via their comical aspects. All of this provides the historical information gave more palpable and easily understandable to kids whose cognitive abilities and attention expectancy are restricted compared to adults. It also creates the mostly positive and upbeat “emplotment” (White 1973: 10) of the totality series that can be identified through White as comedic in character. The general message throughout is that development and also honesty, underpinned by courage and inventiveness, perform win out, though tright here are risks and setbacks all the means with erected by the powers that be.

Emplotment is not all tbelow is to the mise en scène, though. Tbelow are, as we have checked out, the epistemically central indevelopment segments that set the borders for the scenes and also what have the right to take place in them, which then are mostly played out by the major 6 characters. The establishing through six recurring characters has pedagogical value and also the comical scenes are obviously tright here for entertainment functions (however they can have positive additional epistemic impacts as I suggested above). Beyond that, there is the primarily upbeat tone and also comedic emplotment of the totality series, which have the right to at leastern partially be defined by the series being aimed at children as its primary audience. Intercombined via the positive tone there are additionally political and also ethical concerns that are ambivalent, coming to the fore in the risks and anxieties portrayed in the last episode however existing throughout the series via the damage of planet Earth in the intro. In some feeling, the depiction and conversation of these issues have the right to be seen as pedagogically urged too, with the goal of educating children and also helping them to stop calamities that were seen as real possibilities in the late 1970s.

History as children’s seriesChildren’s series such as Once Upon a Time… Man are a certain form of “histotainment” for a details audience and also in this sense it represents a discourse on background of its very own, incredibly various in its primary aspects from the disciplinary and academic discourse of skilled historiography. As I have actually tried to display throughout this message, tbelow are specific criteria and also objectives beyond pucount epistemic ones that influence the character of the finish product that is Once Upon a Time… Man. These purposes and criteria are visible in the “what”, the contents of the series, and also the “how”, the means it is carried onto the display. Those various other goals are mostly pedagogical and entertainment-propelled. Because of this, they are at finest at the sidelines of the discourse of experienced historiography. Tbelow are, however, overlaps between Once Upon a Time… Man and the method history is presented in some museums, specifically those through an explicit pedagogic mission, and in historic documentaries and movies for grown-ups. It will certainly be exciting to have actually a closer look later on on just how epistemic, pedagogic and entertainment objectives intermesh in those historic depictions, in comparikid to Upon a Time… Man and scholarly historiography.

The standard goal of Once Upon a Time… Man is gaining youngsters interested in and also teaching them around history, and also doing this in a fun means, as testified by its creator Albert Barillé.8 Plenty of nostalgic and also highly appreciative comments under episodes of the series on YouTube by currently adults and my own endure are anecdotal evidence that this goal has been amply completed. It would seem background have the right to indeed be taught in an authentic manner while being tailored to the specific requirements of various audiences. And it can be fun all the while also. This is a timely leskid about background for the present.

 

 

 

1 I give thanks to Mikko Kurttila, David Černín, Ilkka Lähteenmäki, and Fu Lo for comments on a previous variation of this text.

2 Tright here were several more children’s cartoon series by Albert Barillé that followed Once Upon a Time … Man, employing the exact same major personalities and visual style and also meeting with comparable success as the initially series. Amongst them were Once Upon a Time... Life from 1986 and Once Upon a Time... The Americas from 1991. Especially Once Upon a Time... Life was a huge success after Once Upon a Time … Man. Like Once Upon a Time … Man did for background, a couple of years after it Once Upon a Time... Life first presented me to organic expertise about the human body. It did not leave, yet, the very same note on my memory as Once Upon a Time… Man did. All series deserve to be regarded on YouTube in assorted languages.

3 When it involves evolution, Once Upon a Time… Man is more realistic than the renowned Rite of Spring segment of Disney’s cartoon film Fantasia from 1940, a genuine classical of film history. Rite of Spring goes for over 20 minutes and also depicts the beforehand background of earth up until the extinction of the dinosaurs, through Stravinsky’s eponymous The Rite of Spring as musical accompaniment, yet leaves the development of human beings out of the photo. Fantasia is the aesthetically and otherwise even more ambitious task, yet Rite of Spring likewise consists of factual errors of a magnitude unwatched in Once Upon a Time… Man. In its most celebrated scene, a Tyrannosaurus rex fights a Stegosaurus, yet Tyrannosaurus lived in the upper Cretaceous up to 66 million years ago and also Stegosaurus in the late Jurassic roughly 150 million years ago, many type of 10s of millions of years apart. (The renowned T-Rex Stegosaurus battle scene have the right to be watched below on YouTube.) While this was recognized in 1940, one more grave error was not: Rite of Spring claims that the dinosaurs went extinct because of a substantial drought period of the planet, whereas this particular day it is firmly established that the Chicxulub impactor that hit the Yucatan peninsula approximately 66 million years earlier wiped out the dinosaurs. Anvarious other inaccuracy is that T-rex is depicted through 3 fingers rather of 2, an imaginative choice of Walt Disney himself, who believed the cregulation looked better that way. In spite of these inaccuracies, Rite of Spring has actually been for many type of youngsters the entree into the civilization of dinosaurs, simply as Once Upon a Time… Man has actually been the beginning of an interest in background for many type of youngsters, myself had. On this result of Rite of Spring and its epistemic and aesthetic properties, watch exceptionally instructively Noyes 2017. According to Charles Pence (Pence 2017), human development was still as well prickly a topic in the US at the 1930s to be consisted of right into Fantasia. Some 40 years later, tbelow was no such issue at all for Once Upon a Time… Man in France. It was instead prelived in with the potential destruction of our world by humanity, which in turn was of no problem to Fantasia.

4 Tbelow are also differences in the music preferred for the intro, at leastern between the German and also the French variation. The French original has Bach’s famed Toccata and also Fugue in D minor (BWV 565) as musical accompaniment, the German version the song “Tausfinish Jahre” (“A thousand years”) by the Austrian singer Uperform Jürgens. The Germale variation adds to the eeriness and somberness of the finishing via the message of Jürgens’ song whose chorus goes: “Was ist Zeit? Ein Augenblick. Ein Stundenschlag. Tausfinish Jahre sind ein Tag” (“What is time? A minute. The striking of an hour. A thousand also years are one day”). The original has the primal top quality of Bach’s body organ job-related for it, which evokes a mélange of contradictory feelings and also ends on a sad note. The different versions deserve to be watched on YouTube here and below.

5 The historian Nathalie Zemon Davis has actually reflected on the anxiety in between historical understanding and also filmic representation throughout her work-related. She is with her The Return of Martin Guerre one of a few historians that has actually worked on both a movie and a academic account about the very same topic, the instance of an impostor in rural 1sixth century France (Zemon Davis 1983). Actually, she functioned on the film first prior to creating the historical account of Martin Guerre, which is inexplicable also for those historians that job-related on historic movies. Reflecting on the differences between movies and academic texts, she writes: “I felt choose I had actually my own historical laboratory, generating not proofs, yet historical possibilities. At the same time, the film was departing from the historic record, and I found this troubling. (…) Wbelow was tbelow room in this beautiful and also cinematographic reproduction of a town for the uncertainties, the “perhapses”, the “may-have-beens”, to which the historian has recourse once the proof is inadequate or perplexing?” (Zemon Davis 1983: viii). See likewise Zemon Davis 1988 for a more thorough account of the distinctions between miscellaneous media of representing background and also possible tensions in between them.

6 The names of the main characters can differ to a details level in the different language versions. In the French original, for instance, the two primary male great characters are dubbed Pierre and le Gros, which translates as the significant or chubby one, rather of Adam and Jumbo. Maestro is Maestro in both versions, and Eva is dubbed Pierrette in the original. The biblical allusion of Adam and also Eve is therefore particular to the Gerguy translation. The 2 negative personalities are called le Teigneux and also le Nabot in the original definition somepoint like stubborn one or blockhead and also shorty in English. The English variation provides the primary personalities as Maestro, Peter, Jumbo, Pierrette, The Pest, and also The Dwarf.

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7 I can’t argue for the philosophical validity of the concept of ”true enough” below. On it, view Elgin 2004. It is additionally incredibly close to what Stuart Glennan dubbed “generalised narrative” (Glennan 2016: 263). Danto (1985: 238) also provides a similar believed in the conmessage of previously philosophy of history

8 In Barillé own words: ”Les enfants passent tellement de temps devant la télévision : alors autant meubler le vide en leur offrant une distraction qui véhicule un savoir. S’ils ne comprennent pas tout, je m’en fous. L’necessary est que ces séries ouvrent la porte au désir de connaître. Mais pour obtenir ce résultat, « qu’est-ce qu’il a fallu avaler comme connaissances ! On a le droit de faire des blagues, mais on doit être irréprochable sur la véracité des faits. «” (quoted in Doussot 2012).