C) the is commonly transmitted by droplet aerosols or direct contact with secretions.

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D) that most differentiating feature is a distinctive rash.

E) it is a gram-positive anaerobe.


5) which of the adhering to pairs is mismatched?

A) Neisseria meningitidis — produces deadly endotoxins

B) Haemophilus influenzae — virulence due to capsule

C) Mycobacterium leprae — cultured in armadillos

D) Cryptococcus neoformans — acid-fast rod


6) every one of the following organisms are appropriately matched come the recommended therapy EXCEPT

A) Neisseria meningitidis — cephalosporins.

B) Haemophilus influenzae — cephalosporins.

C) Cryptococcus neoformans — amphotericin B.

D) Mycobacterium leprae — dapsone.

E) poliovirus — amphotericin B.


7) which of the complying with statements around leprosy is FALSE?

A) the is seldom fatal.

B) Patients v leprosy must be isolated.

C) that is sent by straight contact.


8) all of the complying with organisms space transmitted via the respiratory route EXCEPT

A) Neisseria meningitidis.

B) Haemophilus influenzae.

C) Listeria monocytogenes.


9) i m sorry of the adhering to statements about rabies is FALSE?

A) it is brought about by Lyssavirus.

B) Hydrophobia is connected with the disease.

C) many infections in the U.S. Room the an outcome of bites native infected dogs.


10) The symptom of tetanus room due to

A) endospore formation.

B) systemic infection.

C) continual relaxation the muscles.

D) tetanospasmin.


11) all of the following diseases are led to by arbovirus EXCEPT

A) St. Louis encephalitis.

B) eastern steed encephalitis.

C) West Nile encephalitis.

D) major amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).


12) A 30-year-old mrs was hospitalized ~ she skilled convulsions. Top top examination, she to be alert and also oriented and also complained of a fever, headache, and also stiff neck. Any type of of the following organisms can be responsible for she symptoms EXCEPT

A) Clostridium botulinum.

B) Listeria monocytogenes.

C) Haemophilus influenza.


13) The most effective control of mosquito-borne an illness is

A) treatment of infected humans.

B) therapy of infected wild animals.

C) elimination of the mosquito population.


14) Initial treatment for tetanus in one unimmunized human with a puncture wound is

A) tetanus toxoid.

B) tetanus immune globulin.

C) penicillin.


15) Initial therapy for tetanus in a fully immunized human being with a puncture wound is

A) tetanus toxoid.

B) tetanus immune globulin.

C) penicillin.


16) The most usual route of main nervous system intrusion by pathogens is through

A) the skin.

B) the circulatory system.

C) the gastrointestinal system.


17) The prodromal (i.e. Pre-acute an illness stage) symptoms of bacter meningitis is/are

A) gentle cold symptoms.

B) fever and also headache.

C) stiff neck and earlier pains.


18) all of the following are connected with botulism outbreaks EXCEPT

A) kind A toxin is most virulent.

B) endospores that C. Botulinum have been recovered from honey.

C) kind E toxin is connected with seafood.

D) Alaskan natives have actually the lowest rate of botulism in the world.


19) A pathologist detects Negri bodies while examining a mind section taken at autopsy. What was the reason of death?

A) rabies

B) meningococcal meningitis

C) eastern equine encephalitis


20) Encephalitis is more common in the summer month because

A) pathogens are existing in swim pools and lakes.

B) ameba populations increase in swimming pools.

C) ticks are encountered while hiking in the woods.

D) mosquito populaces increase.


21) i m sorry of the adhering to pairs is mismatched?

A) leprosy — direct contact

B) poliomyelitis — respiratory tract route

C) meningococcal meningitis — respiratory route


22) A 30-year-old mrs was hospitalized after she competent convulsions. ~ above examination, she to be alert and also oriented and complained the a fever, headache, and also stiff neck. I m sorry of the adhering to is most most likely to provide rapid to know of the reason of she symptoms?

A) Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid

B) Gram stain of throat culture

C) biopsy of mind tissue


23) every of the adhering to is brought about by prions EXCEPT

A) lamb scrapie.

B) kuru.

C) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

D) bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

E) rabies.


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24) i m sorry of the complying with vaccine features is (are) mismatched v their respective vaccine type?

A) 1, 3, and also 5

B) 4, 5, and 6

C) 1 and 3 only

D) 2 only


25) one eight-year-old girl in countryside Wisconsin has chills, headache, and fever and reports having been bitten by mosquitoes. Just how would you confirm your diagnosis the arboviral encephalitis?

A) ELISA test for IgM antibodies

B) brain biopsy because that Negri bodies

C) Gram stain the cerebrospinal fluid


26) every one of the following are true the chronic tiredness syndrome EXCEPT

A) it may have a genetic component.

B) the is additionally known together myalgic encephalomyelitis.

C) that is a emotional disorder.


27) A medical professional diagnoses a patient through lepromatous Hansen\"s disease. All of the adhering to pertain come the patient EXCEPT

A) disfiguring nodules form all end the body.

B) the condition has evolved from the tuberculoid stage.

C) a skin biopsy will be taken to aid diagnosis.

D) treatment will encompass injections of penicillin.


28) Arboviruses cause ________ and also aretransfer by ________.

A) meningitis; bee stings

B) meningitis; mosquitoes

C) encephalitis; dog bites

D) encephalitis; mosquitoes


29) Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis is commonly acquired by

A) exposure to bird droppings.

B) mosquito bites.

C) swim in heat ponds or streams.


30) Diagnosis the rabies is evidenced by

A) Gram stain.

B) direct fluorescent-antibody test.

C) patient\"s symptoms.


31) i m sorry of the adhering to is treated v antibiotics?

A) botulism

B) tetanus

C) streptococcal pneumonia


32) Which one of the following causes the most severe condition in humans, through a mortality rate of 30 percent?

A) western horse encephalitis

B) eastern horse encephalitis

C) St. Luigi encephalitis


33) which of the adhering to is/are a free-living amoeba the can cause encephalitis?

A) Acanthamoeba

B) Naegleria

C) Entamoeba

D) Naegleria and Acanthamoeba


34) microscope examination of cerebrospinal liquid reveals gram-positive rods. What is the organism?

A) Haemophilus

B) Listeria

C) Naegleria


35) top top June 30, a 47-year-old guy was hospitalized through dizziness, blurred vision, slurred speech, challenge swallowing, and also nausea. Check revealed facial paralysis. That reported eating home-canned environment-friendly beans and stew include roast beef and potatoes 24 hours prior to onset of symptoms. The patient need to be cure with

A) antibiotics.

B) toxin.

C) surgery.

D) vaccination.

E) supportive care, including respiratory assistance.


36) on October 5, a pets store marketed a kitten that ultimately died. On October 22, rabies was diagnosed in the kitten. Between September 19 and October 23, the pets store had sold 34 kittens. Approximately 1000 human being responded come health care providers complying with local media alerts. These civilization were given

A) antibiotics.

B) human diploid cabinet vaccine.

C) immune globulin injections.

D) antiviral medications.

E) postexposure prophylaxis.


37) vaccination is obtainable for all the adhering to EXCEPT

A) Haemophilus meningitis.

B) Neisseria meningitis.

C) tetanus.

D) rabies.

E) botulism.


38) Patients v leprosy usually die native complications together as

A) mind damage.

B) lose of nerve function.

C) tuberculosis.


39) every one of the adhering to are acquired by sloop down EXCEPT

A) botulism.

B) cryptococcosis.

C) listeriosis.


40) A one-year-old boy was listless, irritable, and sleepy. Capsulated Gram-negative rods were cultured indigenous his cerebrospinal fluid. His symptoms were led to by

A) Neisseria meningitidis.

B) rabies.

C) Clostridium tetani.

D) Haemophilus influenzae.


41) which of the adhering to pairs is mismatched?

A) tetanus — release potent neurotoxin

B) botulism — stimulates transmission of nerve impulse

C) poliomyelitis — multiplication that virus wake up in throat and little intestine


42) every one of the adhering to microorganisms have the right to directly reason meningitis EXCEPT

A) protozoa.

B) virus.

C) fungi.

D) bacteria.

E) mosquitoes.


43) i m sorry of the adhering to vaccines can cause the disease it is designed come prevent?

A) tetanus toxoid vaccine

B) oral polio vaccine

C) inactivated polio vaccine


44) every one of the adhering to are true of M. Leprae EXCEPT

A) it grows finest at temperatures listed below 37° C.

B) the survives sloop down by macrophages.

C) that invades cell of the PNS.

D) it deserve to be cultured in armadillos.

E) it has a very short generation time of approximately twelve hours.


45) all of the following are true of poliomyelitis EXCEPT

A) epidemic is as result of ingestion the contaminated water.

B) initial web page of viral replication are the throat and tiny intestine.

C) many cases an outcome in muscle paralysis.


1) CSF consists of high level of complement and circulating antitoxin to protect against infection the the mind and spinal cord.


2) famous meningitis is much more common 보다 bacterial meningitis and also tends to reason a milder form of disease.


5) If a typical protein frequently found on the surface ar of nervous organization cells come into contact with one abnormally urgent protein, it can lead to prion-related disease.

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8) Autopsy the a stillborn fetus reveals the reason of death to be meningitis. Cultures show the presence of a gram-positive rod. The likely virus is Haemophilus influenza.